Domain names make an integral part of the entire system structure. A URL, which includes an IP address could work just fine for your PC in the identification of specific locations on the web. The decoded numbers are more complex and may not be remembered easily. The domain names have increasingly become the primary method for identifying websites today. The naming infrastructure requires top-level domains to complete the DNS. It is important to understand their function so you can make the most out of the name.
This is the last segment of a domain name, which is considered the part, which follows immediately after the dot. TLDs are divided into; generic TLDs, and country-specific TLDs. Some common examples include; .com, .org, .gov, .biz, .edu, .net, and many more. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names And Numbers (ICANN), is the entity, which coordinates domains and IP addresses for the Internet. Historically, TLDs were meant to represent the purpose and type of domain. ICANN has generally been strict about opening new ones for the past eight years.
Background of TLDs
After publishing the SNS system, TLD domain space was separated into:
Initially, there was only one temporary group (.arpa), which was built to facilitate transitions for the stabilisation of the DNS system. The internet corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) came to take control of oversight in the establishment of DNS root registries especially from the National Information Centre (InterNIC). It was assigned with the formation of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), whose key role is oversight on world IP address allocations. Other duties include autonomous systems numbers, DNS, media types, root zone management, and other protocol-related symbols. There is a massive increase in the number of TLDs recognised by IANA since its formation.
Since TLDs are the hierarchical pinnacle of the DNS system, they act as a final label to the DNS in all low-level domains. They remain to be a key part of the root zone of the domain. Here are some of the most popular top-level domain extensions to use
• .com (commercial)
• org (organisation)
• .net (network)
• .us (United States)
• .mil (military)
• .edu (education)
• .gov (government)
Newest available TLDs today
After the first set of extensions, there has been an increasing improvement of the TLDs. The newest TLDs were created and made available for purchase due to high demand. This means there are more opportunities for users to build their unique identity. Today, it is easy to create a personal web presence without increasing the pressure onto the main set of domain extensions. Some of the latest TLDs were created to serve both wide uses of global and niche in specific interest groups. The groups include, but not limited to; .kitchen, .ninja, .design, and many others. Some of the latest used include:
Groups of TLDs
IANA is responsible for building many groups of TLDs for categories. They are divided into many functions and structures online. Although they are increasing, there is a brief look at every common top-level domain used today.
.arpa is the sole single top-level domain included in the group. IANA maintains the TLD for transitional set for DNS stabilisation to date.
Country Code and Internationalised country code TLDs
Apart from the original renowned groups first established, the country code top-level domains still serve as major TLDs. According to the ISO 3166 code, they come in two-letter codes, as they seek to identify various countries, as well as the subdivisions within them. You may easily recognise such TLDs including; .us, .uk, .au, nz, .mx, or .to for Tonga among many others around the world.
This are the original categories and have the most recognised names. They come in a minimum of three characters. Recently more generic TLDs were added to accommodate the demand for TLDs. As a result, apart from eh common .com, .org, .edu, and .gov among others, now we have;
• .app used for apps
• .biz used by businesses
• .global with an obvious international association
• .host for networking companies
• .info used to provide information.
• .tel used by internet and telecommunications companies
These are other distinctive group. Some of the reserved or restricted TLDs include;
• .test is reserved for testing purposes
• .example is reserved for examples
• .invalid is used to indicate a domain name is invalid.
• .local is reserved by RFC 6762 for resolving link-local hostnames in DNS protocols
• .localhost is reserved in order to avoid conflicts
• .onion is reserved by RFC 7686 as a self-authenticating hostname utilised by Tor
Sponsored top-level domains are often proposed and sponsored by specified communities. They involve organisations based on ethnic, geographical, technical, and professional concepts.
The list of TLDs continues to grow. The latest include; .aero, .biz, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, and .pro. These newest TLDs were proposed in late 2000 but are yet to be accepted. Obscene material, on the other hand use .xxx, .sex, or .adult since 2011. Others include .arts, .firm, .nom, and rec yet to be accepted by IANA because they are replications.